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Quantum Mechanics.
Particle wave function does not have any physical field; it describes a potential outcome of a follow-up.
The true meaning of the wave function became apparent after the Heisenberg uncertainty relation is obtained (1927), especially in long-term dispute with Niels Bohr Albert Einstein.

Quantum mechanics does not give an unambiguous answer to some questions, but only the probability of an outcome. The main discovery of quantum mechanics - the probabilistic nature of the predictions - due to the fact that we use the classical concepts does not have well-defined meaning.

Further development of quantum mechanics was in the works of the English physicist P. Dirac generalized the Schrödinger equation for the case of particles with spin 1 / 2, moving at speeds comparable to the speed of light. The main consequence of the Dirac equation is that, along with the particles should exist antiparticle (for example, along with the electron - positron), differing only sign of particle charge.

In 1930, Enrico Fermi quantum mechanics applied to the electromagnetic field. Wave with wave vector k is the oscillator, which range electric and magnetic fields. The energy of the magnetic field plays the role of the potential energy of the oscillator, and the energy of the electric field - the role of kinetic energy. But applying quantum mechanics to the oscillator leads to the fact that the energy of the oscillator can vary portions of magnitude and, moreover, in the state with the lowest energy of the kinetic and potential energy is not equal to zero. In a vacuum, where there are no particles, no photon, the electric and magnetic fields for each wave vector fluctuate around zero. In a vacuum, there are zero-point fluctuations of the electromagnetic field. If for any wave vector energy is transferred from the lowest value in the first excited state, they say that in space there was one photon with wave vector, energy and momentum. This is the photon, which was predicted by Einstein in 1905
According to the Schrödinger equation, the atom would have unlimited time to be in any excited state. That's zero point fluctuations cause the electron to move to a lower altitude with the emission of a photon - a photon.

The application of quantum mechanics to other fields, such as to describe the electrons and positrons, leads to a similar result - in a vacuum, there are zero-point fluctuations of the electron-positron field, continuous creation and annihilation of particles of all kinds. Such temporary particles formed are called virtual.